The History of Public Relations The act of public relations dates back to 52 B. C. E. in ancient Rome and continues on today all around the world. Public relations is defined as the controlling factor that searches to form and maintain relationships between organizations, profit or non-profit and the public that are beneficial for both parties (Bates).
The age of public relations as a profession evolved in the 20 th Century, mainly in the United States, but its foundation can be followed throughout the age of man. The practice of public relations is dedicated to complete honesty and openness in its communications and operations. Over time, the force of professional public relations has triumphed over several setbacks. Arthur W. Page, creator of the five principles of corporate public relations in 1927 stated, “All business in a democratic country begins with public permission and exists by public approval. If that be true, it follows that business should be cheerfully willing to tell the public what its policies are, what it is doing, and what it hopes to do.
This seems practically a duty.” Page’s principles still carry on today with many businesses and corporations. Page and other renown public relations professionals such as Edward Bernays, founder of modern public relations, believe that pr and civilization is a collaboration that exists throughout time. As far back as the time of Julius Caesar, many historians believe the he wrote his Commentaries as governor of Gaul to promote himself to the public. Caesar, being aware of persuasion and how news can inform the public, published a daily paper called Acta Diurnal, meaning “daily acts” or “daily records”, that carried on for 400 years. Since the invention of writing, public relations was formed. Leaders of ancient civilizations used writings to promote their superiority in war and politics.
... traits expected of him or her. Focusing on our daily lives, public relations occurs at a much more frequent rate than we are ... flow of information and ideas within our society and the businesses we operate in. Thus, an opportunity has been given to ... of the world they live in while at the same time they are concerned about how the rest of society perceives ...
Public interest became a huge priority for everyone. The Renaissance and Reformation founded the modern world and the first stages of public relations that is attributed to public and private organizations today and several articles of history. The Magna Carta, which influenced the U. S. Constitution, for example, empowered the right to public opinion.
In 1789, the leaders of the French Revolution wrote Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens, to promote citizens to express and communicate their opinion freely. With this, the French gained support for the French Revolution from the public. Many proficient public relations writers arose from England’s American colonies. Such legendary experts include Samuel Adams, John Jay, Paul Revere, and Benjamin Franklin. These men used preaching, meetings, newspapers, pamphlets, committees, and written communication to persuade the public to support their cause. The Federalist Papers, written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and Jay in 1787 to 1788, won public approval of the Constitution by publishing to the press.
Other great works that paved the way for the public relations field are, the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Public relations, though used throughout history, has just made an imprint on U. S. society in the 19 th century and the beginning of the 20 th century as a profession.
With the building of a corporate world in the late 19 th century, public relations blossomed. It was not long that many employers discovered that their employees have a voice and how the public views their business may be detrimental to their sales. The war between employer and employee would soon be over with the establishment of press bureaus. These press bureaus would manage the dispersal of news in their favor and unfavorable to their competitors. It was not until the late 1800 s that the term public relations would be vastly used. The Association of American Railroads was the first to coin the term in its 1897 Year Book of Railway Literature (Bates).
... communications that explain the situation to the public. In companies or organizations public relations duties include: press releases, trade shows, interviews with the media ... increasingly fast paced world driven by information. There is no clear-cut formula for finding a job in public relations. (Public Relations, Jobs, 256) A ...
Public relations derived from the press bureaus, with single publicists, to a vas variety of PR experts employed by publicity firms. In the early 18 th century, George V. S. Michaelis, Thomas O. Marvin, and Herbert Small, founded the first U.
S. publicity firm called, The Publicity Bureau. However, shortly after a failed attempt to oppose contrary regulatory legislation for the nation’s railroads, many formed their own public relations departments. After the World War II, the U.
S. became the wealthiest country in the world and public relations flourished. Several institutions, organizations (profit and non-profit), and corporations began to notice the affects of public relations for their businesses. In the late 1940 s and 1950 s, only a small number of higher education institutions offered courses in public relations therefor, experienced journalist’s were employed by publicity firms.
Journalist’s would soon refer to PR writing as “in-house journalism” (PRSA).
In 1948, the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA), was founded to represent public relations professionals. Today, with over 20, 000 members, the PRSA is the world’s largest public relations membership association. Public Relations evolved to a mutual exchange, rather than a one-sided exchange after social issues and dilemmas made government, business, working, and other powerful organizations create ways to communicate to the public. These institutions began to listen to public and meet their expectations and demands. The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics states that one of the fastest growing professional fields in the country is public relations.
Not only is public relations growing in the U. S. , but in other countries as well. The world has noticed that what runs their businesses, organizations, and other institutions, is the public. PR has made its way through history and has satisfied its place or role, if any, in the world today. “The three main elements of public relations are practically as old as society: informing people, persuading people, or integrating people with people.
Of course, the means and methods of accomplishing these ends have changed as society has changed.” – Edward Bernays, founder of modern public relations Bibliography Don Bates, “MINI-ME” HISTORY TO INFORM AND PERSUADE: Public Relations from the Dawn of Civilization, Institute for public relations, web July 18, 2005. Edward L. Bernays, Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923; reprint ed. , Norman, OK. : University of Oklahoma Press, 1961).
... the management level. It is therefore crucial that people at all levels embrace Public relations to create a more productive and cohesive society. ... profits to compensate prior losses. Following the 2001 New York World Trade Center terrorist attack, Oyvind et al (2009) explain ... 2007). This concept was especially evident in the World War I and II. In World War II, Robert, Elizabeth and Damion (2009 ...
Edward L. Bernays, Public Relations (Norman, OK. : University of Oklahoma Press, 1952) Scott Cut lip, Public Relations History: From the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century (Mahwah, NJ. : Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates, 1999).
Public Relations Society of America, Public Relations Education for the 21 st Century: A Port of Entry, PRSA, web July 19, 2005.