The Dutch stress sytem Dutch is described as being a quantity-sensitive trochaic system, operating from left to right with. In the following essay I will give the arguments and data that point towards this system. I will also analyse in which way exceptions are being taken care of within this system. The metrical analysis will be based on work by Trommel en & Zonneveld. These authors adopt an onset-rhyme organisation of syllable structure. We can make three major generalizations about stress when analyzing Dutch: Firstly, main stress always falls within a three-syllable-window at the right word edge: this indicates that the main stress always falls on one of the last three syllables.
This can also be called the three-syllable restriction. This produces three different stress patterns: final, penultimate and antepenultimate. Primary stress is prohibited further to the left. The three-syllable-window restriction: … ( ) #Data: ANT PEN FIN VV# Am ” erika ma car ” on individu ” uVC# Jer’ cat am ” aran kame le ” on Furthermore, stress is restricted to a two-syllable window in words containing a pre final (or diphthongal) syllable. This means that antepenultimate stress (third syllable from right side of the word) only occurs in words with an open syllable next to it (an open penultimate syllable).
Therefore, the Dutch stress system depends on the character of the second to last (penultimate) syllable. Data: ANT PEN FIN-VV-VV P’a nama pj ” ama choc ol’a -VV-VC b’ c’ pe lot ” on -VC-VV ag ” end a ‘eau-VC-VC Gib r ” altar bombard ” on-Vivo-VV and’ Thirdly, schwa syllables ae never stressed: Data: a) – CVV-C@ (C) b) -CVV-@ (C) m’ode, sal ” ade, mir ‘akel, Azi”e, B’eli”e, t’err i”er, l’enter, sept ” ember ‘Indi”e This is called the schwa-syllable restriction. Primary stress falls directly for a schwa syllable if schwa is immediately preceded by a consonant. We can, however also make minor generalizations within the bounds of major generalizations.
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These minor generalizations reflect the predominant stress patterns, and allow for exceptions. These exceptions stand for the recessive stress patterns within the system. The position of main stress is conditioned both by the length of the word and by the internal structure of the syllables involved. The dominant patterns in Dutch are the following: In disyllabic words ending in open (VV) and closed (VC) syllables, penultimate stress is dominant In, the dominant patterns are penultimate stress in VV-final words and antepenultimate stress in VC-final words (if the penultimate syllable is open) In VXC-final words, final stress is the dominant pattern.
Now that we know about these generalizations we can provide arguments and data which point towards the system of Dutch stress. Extrametricality: Extrametricality in the Dutch language is normally operating on words having a final – VX syllable (which is heavy).
However, it does not work on final ‘open’ VV-syllables (which are light).
The following examples prove this Ba. ri. t On ba.
ri. t On ba. ri. ba. ri. This makes the word: B’aritonThis is valid for Am ” erika, Jer’ and l’ex icon, etc.
as well. It can be said as a conclusion that Dutch is extra metrical with the exception of SH- syllables (superheavy syllables) and are not extra metrical. Quantity sensitivity: In languages where the parameter ‘Quantity sensitivity’ is active, stress rules take into account the internal structure of a rhyme. Quantity sensitive languages usually contrast syllables with long and short vowels and, optionally open and closed vowels. Because Dutch vowels are obligatorily long in open syllables, vowel length does not correspond to weight. Dutch rhymes consist, in their most minimal form of either a) a long vowel (VV), which forms an open (light) syllable b) a short (lax) vowel followed by a coda consonant (VC) which forms a closed, heavy syllable.
... stress (strong stress) and a secondary stress (weak stress). Also, the secondary stress may be present (in addition to the primary stress) in shorter words in the syllable ... rate of speaking varies constantly. When two strongly stressed syllables occur close together, it is slower; when they are ... deserves your special attention. 2. The final consonant of one word will be blended with the initial sound ...
c) a rhyme consisting of a diphthong, which makes the syllable heavy. d) a syllable ending with – VXC, which makes the syllable superheavy. e) a schwa syllable (@) which makes the syllable weightless Considering only quantity sensitivity, all the heavy syllables are then stressed: Ta. ta. t As.
ta Observations providing evidence that Dutch is quantity-sensitive can then be made: a) Schwa syllables are never stressed b) Antepenultimate stress occurs across an open penultimate syllable but is excluded across a closed (or diphthongal) penult. c) Main stress tends to be non final in VX-final words, versus final in VXC-final words (such as a. g’en. da vs. pe. lo.
t’on) The result of this is that most of the time any closed syllable has stress: Data: LLL: a. g’en. daL HH: Gi. br ” al. tarLLSH: le. di.
k’antViVj: a. z’ijnThe fact that the Dutch weight system does not group long vowels (VV) together with closed syllables (VC) in the cl as of heavy syllables is very uncommon cross-linguistically. Quantity sensitivity also accounts for the closed syllable constraint and for the schwa-syllable restriction (page 1, under ‘generalizations’) Direction: Dutch is a system working from right to left in assigning feet, because the is operating at the end of the words (and this occurs only if the direction is from right to left).
Another indicator which can help linguists find the direction is the ‘left-over syllable’ in odd-syllabled words. (for instance in the word Ne. bu.
kid. n’e. z ar; in this case the first syllable is left over and it therefore has secondary stress) Left-headed (trochaic): If the direction and the major and minor generalizations are taken into account, the Dutch stress system must be trochaic, since the dominance parameter generates a left-headed rhythm. The following derivations show how the word pajama receives its stress LLL py. ja. ma py.
... penultimate syllable) or as verbs (with stress on the final syllable), with a very small number of cases the location of lexical stress alone ... – abstr’act, etc. These words were French borrowings with the original stress on the last syllable. Verbs retained it, while in ... are a lot of different types of word building or word formation, also called word manufacturing. These types appear because of ...
ja. ma py. ja. maAn other argument for the Dutch stress system to be trochaic would be that in two-syllabic words ending in open (VV) or closed (VC) syllables, the penultimate stress is dominant. We should also note that the combination of dominance (left headed) and syllable captivates the three-window-generalisation.
These facts taken together is enough information to say that Dutch is a trochaic-working system. Exceptions: Dutch may be viewed as a mixed system with both metrical rules and lexical markings. Dominant patterns are generated by metrical rules (combined with late), whereas recessive ones ask for lexical markings. Recessive patterns are: (I) stress a) LLL lexical stress on final L-syllable P’a nama antepenultimate b) LLH no pe lot ” on final) LLH idiosyncratic N’ antepenultimate (II) d) LLL lexical stress on final L, no choc ol’a finale) LLH lexical stress on penultimate L Cel ” eyes penultimate In group I there is pre specified stress on final or pre final light syllables, in group II there are lexical markings with respect to. In a), additional can be found. In b), there is no and there is a pre final lexical stress.
In c) and d), again a lack of. In e), finally, there is additional again. The following table gives a list of the lexical markings in Dutch. It also visualizes the possible exceptions. FLS stands for final pre specified Lexical Stress, and PLS stands for Pre final pre specified Lexical Stress.
ANT PEN FIN-VV# FLS FLS (-) -VC# PLS — VXC# + +, PLS Conclusion: When the data given above, one can conclude that Dutch has five different types of syllables: open syllables (CVV), closed syllables (CVC), diphthongal syllables (CVi Vj), superheavy syllables (VXC) and schwa syllables. The last two types are always confined to the right edge of a word. Secondly we can conclude that the Dutch stress system is based upon syllable weight (it is quantity sensitive).
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The most important evidence for that can be provided by point 2 of the major generalizations. It can also be found under point b) in the paragraph quantity sensitivity. The Dutch language is trochaic.
The proof for that can be found in the paragraphs above. Fourthly, the Dutch stress system can be described as being mixed, with both metrical rules and lexical markings. This is never done, however, at the cost of the three-syllable- and the heavy penult- window, or at the cost of the schwa-restriction rule which are described in the beginning of this essay. Therefor Dutch includes a predictable part and a lexically determined part by which accumulation idiosyncrasies reflect degrees of marked ness (in other words, here the exceptions are described).
In this last part two types can be analysed: lexical markings with respect to and pre specified lexical stress on final or pre final light syllables. Dutch: English Pre- si- d’ent Pr’e- si- dental L SH L L H ( .
) ( ) ( . ) H’o- ri- z on Ho- r’i- zone L H L T H ( . ) (. ) Fa- m’i- lie F’a- mi- lll L L L L L (.
) ( . ) ( . ).