Todays Muslims are branded as terrorists or fundamentalist. But their religion is a gentle religion. Onthe Arabian Peninsula, home of the Arabs, was isolated and they were able to develop their civilization without outside influences. It is about 1 million miles square, that is located between the Red sea and the Persian Gulf. There are two distinctive regions. The first has well-watered valleys between mountains and the second is arid plains and desert.
Grass grows quickly during the shoes of the rainy season. In ancient times the Arabs were bedouin (nomads that her sed sheep, goats, and camels. and lived intents made made of felt from camel or goat hair. ) They ate fresh or dried dates and drank milk from their herds.
On special occasions they ate mutton. their tribes were made of related families. They valued family ties becase because they ensured they ensured protection and survival. They had a chief (sheikh).
The sheikh ruled as long as the tribe allowed him. They had a council of elders.
There was warfare over waterholes and pastures. Their way of punishment is an eye for sn eye and a tooth for a tooth. To improve warrior skills they had camel and horse. They had story telling in front of the campfire. They had poetry about battles, desert, camels, horses, and love.
In 500 A. D. they started a town called Makkah, which was fifty miles inland of the Red sea. Trade was mostly of for dates grains, spices, jewels ivory, silk, and perfumes. They had caravans travel there from as for china.
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Arabs had and worshipped many di tied business ties were replacing family ties, and old tribal laws were Byzantine and the Pers in armies were threatening to conquer them. The tribes had the some language but they had no central government, or sense of unity, The Arabs searched for new beliefs. The prophet of Islam was muhammad. He was born in Makkah in 570 A. D… Hewas orphaned at an early age and was adopted by his uncle.
He worked as a caravan leader on a trade route. Hewas know to be honest and able. His employer ‘a, window if age 40, put him in charge of this business and proposed marriage to him. He went to a cave outside the city in 610 A. D. to pray and fast (vision) there.
He was told to recite. ‘Recite in the name of your lord, the creator who created man from clots of blood. Recite! Your lord os the most bountiful one who by the pen has taught mankind things they didn’t know.’ ‘ His second vision to rise and worn people. In 613 A. D.
he preached to his family and friends that there was one god. And all that be lived in him are equal. The rich shared with poor lots of the converts were poor. The rich merchants and the religious leaders did not like, Muhamad and the Muslims were persecuted. After some the ats on his life in 632 A. D.
he sent 60 families to Yathrib. And then in secret (Known then as the Horah immigration).
622 A. D.
os know on the Muslim calendar as the fris t year. Muhamad became the rules of Yathrib then it was calledMedinch al-Neb or Madinah ”the city of the prophet.’ ‘TheMadinch Compact of 624 A. D. was the foundation ofIslanie state. Muhamad was the Judge and commander in chief. Quran was their bible of Islam.
They, to Jews and christi and who accepted Islams political. Makkems invaded Yathrib, and the Muslims fought in self defense. The Mak kans were defeated. And the Muslims won support of the Arab groups outside of Madinah. They later invaded Makkah and hod little resistance. They accepted Islamic Religion and Muhammad.
Islamic Religion and Muhammed. They destroyed idols, and turned the shrine of prophet Abraham into a place of worship. Makkah was the spiritual capital and Mdi nth into the political capital. In 631 A. D. the Arabian Peninsula was supported by an army representing each of the Arab tribes.
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Muhammad later died at Madinah in 632 A. D. Beliefs The Quran was the divine messages from God over a of 22 years. It was written down or memorized that was compiled into a written collection (Quran).
is the final matters of faith and lifestyles.
It was written in Arabic. It is stories, teachings, of what is written in the Bible. Values Basic Moral values in the Quran are similar to Christianity andJudasim. Murder, lying, stealing and adultery.
Honor parents, protect and orphans, show kindness to neighbors and give money to the poor. They weren’t allowed to eat pork. drink alcohol; gambling. They have rules for marriage, divorce, family life, and property inheritances. Law is not religion.
There is no rated in order of clergy. Sharii’ ah organization moral principles into a body of law. Based onQuren and Hadith (sayings of Muhammad) covered all aspects of Muslim private and public lifes. Five pillars of Islam faith Confessions of faith: ‘There is no god but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God.’ All Muslismsare required to submit to god’s will as given in the Quran. Muhammad role is stress in the Confession, that he is just the messenger and not devine… Musliums think that he is the last and the greatest of the Prophets.
They see life as a preparation of Judgement Day. And when they rise from the grave, they will be judge dor their actions (heaven or hell).
allah is also the god of the Jews, christ ans, Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Je uses. They are all given c onside rto be prophets. Musliums have great respect for the Bible, Judas im, and Christianity. They believe that the Arabs of Ishmael, son of Abraham.
Prayer: They pray five times a day sunrise, noon, afternoon, sunset and evening facing Makkah using the same motion and words. They kneel, bow, and touch their foreheads to the ground (sign of submission).
They pray no matter what. Friday at noon in a mosque (shrine, court, school, and shelter).
Imam (leader of the prayer) can be any male with the proper religious training. Alms are charity done privately and a state tax. Fasting: Is in the month of Ramadan (the ninth month of the Arabian caland er).
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They can not eat or drink from sunrise to sunset.
After the fasting they have a three day feast. Children, sick and pregnant women. Cannon sounds for the prayers. Pilgemage- (Haji) everyone goes to Makkah at least once in their life. Once they go they are honored in their community. Haji is two months and ten days after Rama dum fast.
They have three days of ceremony, prayer, and sacrifice. Now they worship at Kaaba, Makkah, and ma dinah. It is a visible expression of unity and an expression of ideas. Role of Women ‘Men are responsible for women’. Womens postion is largely defined by her relationship with her male relatives and Husbands. They stopped the killing of baby girls.
They limited polygamy down to 4 wives. But they had to be equal to each other. Women had control over her own property and she could inherit property from her father and remarry. Their lives are invested into the family and household. Mui sana the wife of Mu’: ‘ The coarse cloth woven in serenity of the desert Is more precious to me then luxuries robes of a Queen I love the bedouins tent, caressed by the murmuring breeze and standing amid boundless horizons, More than the glided halls of marble in their royal slender. I feel more at ease with my simple crust than with the of the court; I prefer to rise early with the caravan Rather than to be glare of the sumptuous es court.
The barking of the a watchdog keeping away strangers Pleases me more than the sounds of the played by court singers; I prefer a desert cavalier, generous and poor To a fat lout inn purple living behind closed doors.’ -Najib Ulla h, Islamic literature Men Men were active in politics, army, business, and fields. They went to the bath houses for relaxation and to work out. Boys entered school at age seven. They take writing and reading. Which are Arab admires.
They went to Madrasa ( school) after they finished regular school. Houses They are plain with very little furniture. They used carpets, small objects of art, and pillows. They sat on the rug and used pillows to lean on. During meals household members sit in a circle and ate from large trays of bread, fruits, and meats.
Islamic Trade spices, textiles, glass, and carpets. Men met in bazaars (market places) to converse and business. food was difficult to grow in a lot of Islamic country. They Irrigated, rotated, and fertilized land. Large landowners who owned the more productive got grants from the government. they hire nearby farmers to help.
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They produced wheat, rice, beans, cucumbers, celery and perfume. Islamic scientist translate the books into Arba ic. They invented algebra and equations to define curves and lines. Their work in geometry lead to invention of. They accurately predicted the solar eclipses. they accurately measured the circumference and size.
they were unmatched until the 1990’s. They produce the most accurate maps of the eastern Hemisphere. They developed alchemy, the branch of science that try to convert iron into gold. al-Ruiz classified chemical substances into animal, plant or mineral. He wrote a medical and a handbook that told the differences between small pops and measles.
Their knowledge of medicine was centuries ahead of the rest of the world.