1) Statecraft and the unity of state and religion The fact that three quarters of the Koran is focused on civil procedure makes us appreciate how important establishing the state was to Muhammad. He embedded in these procedures in the Koran because he wanted no separation between religion and state. For good reason, having no split between these two facets leaves no gray area of rule that conforms to one system and not the other. He did not want the loyalties of his people to clash between their faith and their government. This achievement originated through the Koran’s integration of scriptures and civil guidelines. 2) Absence of Clergy The absence of clergy within the Islamic faith is attributed to three causes.
SS In the early days of Islam, Muhammad would preach in the holy city of Mecca. During this time, Mecca was filled with Christians, Jews, and Pagans. The Christian and Jewish clergymen would mock Muhammad day and night; they discouraged and embarrassed him with hopes to break his will. Its safe to assume that from the start, Muhammad has a negative feel towards clergyman. SS Islamic faith is the much more self-serving than any of the other major religions. You convert yourself, marry yourself, & pray yourself.
Muhammad did not feel it was essential or even necessary to institute a higher authority in the place of worship. SS Before Muhammad become The Prophet, he was very established, and greatly successful as a businessman. And his business intellect led him to the conclusion that it would be a waste of funds to setup a higher authority in the mosques. After all if he were to succeed at spreading Islamic influence into the Persian and Arabian Empires, he would need all the funds he could get.
... Religion/Faith Mike Johnson February 17, 1997 English 101/ Hicks ... You can't be forced into religion. It takes a certain amount of faith to be religious. And then in ... Religious education raised the issue of honesty.' How does religion relate to honesty, other that the honesty to ourselves ... That quote said by Mr. Eisenhower exemplifies an American religion, or standard by which we look for guidance and ...
3) Law Issues a. Legal procedures The Islamic judicial system has somewhat a resemblance to the American judicial system. The greatest similarity is the practice that a person is innocent until proven guilty. Another likeness is the practice of Habeas Corpus.
This provides that no person shall be held against his or her will without being formally charged with a crime. However, a major difference in regards to legal procedure between our two cultures is the absence of lawyers. In Islamic legal proceedings, an alleged criminal is not granted the use of an attorney. If a Writ of Amicus Cure is established, the defendant deems themselves unable to comprehend the accusations brought upon them, and unable to adequately defend themselves. In this case a third party can be brought in to take the case. Certain charges require eyewitness accounts to convict on.
For example, if a man was on trial for adultery, it would take a testimony of four men or eight women to prove guilt. A women eyewitness counts half of that as a man eyewitness. This is attributed to the belief that women are more forgiving than men. It is one of the few places in the Koran that inequality is given to men and women. b. Constitutional issues Every law and binding principle is set forth in the three quarters portion of the Koran that acts as the Islamic Constitution.
c. Judicial review of laws The Ulema act as the Islamic Supreme Court. Ulema stands for Scholars of Islamic Law. They have the power to interpret the Koran, challenge rulings, and set precedence by issuing fet was, or rulings. 4) Social issues and people’s equality before the law a.
race There is no separate classes or prejudices. An example of his strong belief is what took place in when Muhammad was in Ethiopia. A black peasant had just converted. Muhammad made certain that everyone understood that this peasant whom had recently converted now has the same class as the prince from Yemen whom converted years ago. They are both brothers now, both apostles under the same light. One pillar of the Islamic culture that Muhammad was determined to apply was the idea that all races, all, all classes and genders are all equal in the eyes of God.
... to a rush, which goes away, after being scratched. Unlike women, men can easily dissociate mentally from their genitals, which allows them ... better suited for men or for women who should have been born as men (feminists). The fact that men and women communicate differently simply ... sort of egalitarian utopia, while striving to actually defy the laws of nature. Outline: Page 1 Thesis and conclusion.. ...
Once converted, all of the people of your faith are now your brothers and sisters. b. gender Some of the most influential and significant figures in Islamic history have been women. The first Muslim was Muhammad’s mother, Sumayya. She also was the first to transcribe the words of Allah, through Muhammad. Women are just as significant and respected in the social, political, and financial sectors within Islamic cultures.
Much different from Western culture, the majority of leaders in Muslim states are women. There are only two instances in the Koran where women are noted as unequal. With regards to inheritance a women is entitled to less. Also in the witness system, a woman eyewitness counts as half of a man. Where it takes eight women eyewitnesses to prove a crime, it only takes four men. c.
class As previously discussed, classes meant nothing to Muhammad and his followers. He preached the idea of total equality for all races and classes. Converted peasants and kings all sit at the same table and received the same degree of respect. 5) Charity and endowments and the discouragement of non-utilitarian monuments Lets not forget how intelligent a businessman Muhammad was. He mandated that each and every Muslim pay a charity tax, or Zakat. These funds would be distributed throughout the community in effort to exonerate poverty from their communities.
These days, Shiites pay 5% and Sunnis pay 2 1/2 % of Zakat. Its safe to assume that Muhammad’s days as an unfortunate orphan, who had nothing but the bare necessities motivated him to setup this system. Another idea that Muhammad made it a point to initiate was to absolve any waste of funds on non-utilitarian monuments. He did not to squander moneys that could be spent helping the poor, building mosques or school or useless monuments or lavish decorations. Here again, Muhammad leads by example. He orders that no monument or tomb be used to honor his grave.
... Quraysh brought armies against Prophet Muhammad (S), the Muslims fought to defend their faith and community. The Qur " ... be no compulsion (or coercion) in the religion (Islam). The right direction is distinctly clear from ... weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed) - Men, women, and children, whose cry is: 'Our Lord! ... to the Muslims: "We like your rule and justice far better than the state of oppression ...
He saw no use for these types of things within his society. Every dollar must be spent appropriately on the community, no wasted on material objects. 6) Toleration of other religions and traditions Muhammad the statesman felt that it would have been ridiculous and unproductive to be abusive of other religions. After all, Muslim religion was built on Christian and Jewish faith. To attack the foundation, would be undermining the very faith of Islam. Because Islam is both a religion and a state, Muhammad felt it would be easier to run his state welcoming other religions.
This principle allowed the great Muslim conquests into the Arabian and Persian territories to be so successful. If communities did not convert, they simply followed the credo of Islamic statehood and kept their religion. 9) Education Before Muhammad was a successful, lucrative businessman, he was a poor, illiterate orphan. In fact, when Muhammad first received revelations from Allah, he wasn’t educated enough to transcribe them on paper. Just as the absence of prejudice amongst genders and classes, the availability of high education to all is also a pillar in the Islam way of life. If you are of Muslim faith, the Koran states that it is a requirement to become educated..